So you finally found the right solenoid valve to replace your broken one. You call to check stock on the item and the sales rep asks you what thread type you need. Pneumatic components such as air cylindersvalvesand air preparation units come equipped with specific port threads. Choosing the correct thread type will ensure optimum compatibility with your equipment. At a glance, threads may look similar. For example, G threads are not compatible NPT threads because of their differing angles, shapes, and thread pitches threads per inch.
We have compiled a simple step-by-step guide to help you identify your thread type. We also encourage you to download this Thread Identification Guide for future reference because it will certainly come in handy. A caliper is a useful tool that measures the outside diameter of a male thread and inside diameter of a female thread. Using a caliper will give you the most accurate and precise measurements, but a straight steel ruler is a good alternative. A pitch gauge measures the threads per inch.
For metric threads, this tool measures the distance between the threads. Take a look at where the threads are located. It simply serves as a way to distinguish between the two connections. Next, determine if the thread is tapered or parallel.
Tapered threads become narrower as they extend outward while parallel threads remain the same diameter. Sometimes this characteristic can be determined through visual inspection, but if not a caliper can come in handy. Use the caliper to measure the first, fourth, and final full thread. These threads create a seal through metal-to-metal wedging or slight deformation of the threads.
Parallel threads will often require an o-ring or thread tape to ensure a tight seal. The next step in identifying your thread type is to determine the pitch size. While a ruler could be used to calculate the pitch size, a pitch gauge is highly recommended as pitch sizes can be very similar.
Test a couple different sizes with a pitch gauge to find the best match.Our metric stud bolt to nut table is meant to help determine the correct size bolt or nut for your purpose. Definitions of terms are located below the chart. Use the dimensions of your bolt to determine the appropriate size nut. Nominal diameter is more of a label than a size. But neither the external threads of the bolt nor the internal threads of the nut are exactly.
In fact, the bolt diameter is a little smaller and the nut diameter a little larger. But it is easier to specify the components by a single size designation since the bolt and nut are mating components. Pitch is also described as the number of threads per inch.
Functional diameter is a measure of the ability to assemble the thread. Threads are found on screws, nuts, and bolts. Coarse threads have a larger threadform relative to screw diameter, whereas fine threads have a smaller threadform relative to screw diameter.
Metric Stud Bolt To Nut Size Chart Our metric stud bolt to nut table is meant to help determine the correct size bolt or nut for your purpose. Download Printable Version.Add standard and customized parametric components - like flange beams, lumbers, piping, stairs and more - to your Sketchup model with the Engineering ToolBox - SketchUp Extension - enabled for use with the amazing, fun and free SketchUp Make and SketchUp Pro.
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Privacy We don't collect information from our users. Citation This page can be cited as Engineering ToolBox, Modify access date. Scientific Online Calculator. Make Shortcut to Home Screen?As part of Thorlabs' commitment to serve the international photonics community, we design our products for compatibility with imperial and metric setups.
When it is possible for one part to fulfill the needs of both imperial and metric customers simultaneously, only one part which we call "universal" is developed and sold. However, when it is not feasible or useful for a single part to satisfy both standards, Thorlabs designs both an imperial item and a metric equivalent. Generally speaking, the distinction between imperial and metric parts is most important when the part has mechanical mounting features that make use of threaded, tapped holes.
A tapped hole is a hole that allows you to screw in a setscrew or cap screw and is only compatible with one threading type. Since both imperial and metric thread standards exist, parts that use threaded mounting holes must have both imperial and metric versions.
For example, consider Thorlabs' TR Postswhich contain two tapped holes. An imperial TR post cannot be directly used with a metric breadboard, and a metric TR post cannot be directly used with an imperial breadboard.
Therefore, two versions must exist. These parts use counterbored holes which have smooth edges for mounting, rather than threads. The lack of threading means that either or M4 cap screws can be dropped right in. Therefore, only one version, which we call a "universal" version, has been designed. To limit confusion for our customers who have both imperial and metric optomechanics, metric parts typically include an identification marker not present on the imperial equivalent.
For example, as shown to the right, our metric TR posts are machined with a ring on the tapered edge next to the M4-threaded hole. Other examples of metric ID marks are shown in the drawings that appear later in this tutorial. A setup may combine universal and imperial parts, or it may combine universal and metric parts, but without specialized hardware such as our threading adaptersimperial and metric parts cannot be combined.
Universal mounts do not contain threaded holes for mounting. Hence, a common question that we receive is how to attach a universal mount to an imperial or metric post since our posts ship with either an or M4 setscrew installed. An or M4 cap screw can then be inserted through the universal mount and tightened into the vacated tapped hole. Since universal parts are designed to be used with cap screws, we typically include both imperial and metric cap screws with each item.
To know if a part is universal, simply check the part's webpage to see if we manufacture imperial and metric versions separately. The imperial and metric distinction is also important in product lines that are distinguished by their mechanical dimensions.
Again, consider our TR posts. The imperial versions of these come in several discrete lengths: 1" However, the metric versions of these come in different discrete lengths: 30 mm 1. In other words, we customize our imperial and metric versions so that they come in measurements that make sense for the intended customers.
As a consequence of these differences, it is generally best to use imperial parts with imperial setups and metric parts with metric setups, even when the parts contain universal features. Part Naming Conventions In situations where the key differences between parts in the same family are their mechanical dimensions, the naming may change between imperial and metric versions.
This is done for convenience and readability. For example, our 1" TR post is named TR1our 1. The number after the TR prefix indicates the length of the part in imperial units.Bolt threads are measured in two ways: Imperial thread size is measured in "TPI" — or threads per inch — whereas metric bolt threads are measured in "thread pitch.
Metric Bolt Conversion
Being unsure of exactly what bolt thread size you're working with can be very confusing, and an inaccurate guess can often mean buying a number of matching pieces that are the wrong size. Knowing how to measure and calculate bolt thread size can help you ensure that you have the exact right bolts for the project you are working on. Bolts produced in the United States for American products are measured in threads per inch. You can measure using a ruler, counting the number of thread tips per inch.
For a metric bolt, use the ruler to measure the distance between thread tips. There are other methods for measuring both metric and imperial bolts. The most popular is with a thread pitch gauge. A thread gauge is available at most hardware and home improvement stores. They have a serrated edge stamped with measurements. By looking at the number stamped beside the edge that sits tightest on the gauge, you can determine the thread measurement.
If you don't have a thread gauge, there are printable thread gauges available online that allow you to print out an approximate gauge and use it to measure. This is very helpful if you need to know the thread measurements in a pinch.
But if you are going to be measuring bolt thread size on a regular basis, purchasing a thread gauge is recommended. You will need both the thread diameter and the thread pitch to determine the thread size. If you are measuring Imperial bolt thread size, you'll need to record the measurements as thread diameter followed by a hyphen, then the thread per inch measurement. For metric bold thread size, the formula is the thread diameter, followed by the "x" symbol and then the thread pitch number.
If you do not have access to any of the measuring techniques described above, you can go to most home improvement or hardware stores and ask if they have a thread insert device. They consist of a display center with a number of bolt receiving inserts and their measurements, so you can insert the bolt you have into the piece and discern which size it is. This will help ensure that you get the exact fit you need.
Ashley Friedman is a freelance writer with experience working in the home, design and interiors space. Hunker may earn compensation through affiliate links in this story. How to Measure Bolt Thread Size. Share this article. Ashley Friedman. Show Comments.The Unified Thread Standard UTS defines a standard thread form and series—along with allowances, tolerances, and designations—for screw threads commonly used in the United States and Canada. It is the main standard for bolts, nuts, and a wide variety of other threaded fasteners used in these countries.METRIC vs. INCH-based (UTS) threads
Each thread in the series is characterized by its major diameter D maj and its pitch, P. UTS threads consist of a symmetric V-shaped thread. The pitch P is the distance between thread peaks. UTS threads do not usually use the pitch parameter; instead a parameter known as threads per inch TPI is used, which is the reciprocal of the pitch. In an external male thread e. This means that the external thread must end flat at D majbut can be rounded out below the minor diameter D min.
Conversely, in an internal female thread e. The minor diameter D min and effective pitch diameter D p are derived from the major diameter and pitch as. The standard designation for a UTS thread is a number indicating the nominal major diameter of the thread, followed by the pitch measured in threads per inch.
This number pair is optionally followed by the letters UNC, UNF or UNEF Unified if the diameter-pitch combination is from the coarsefineor extra fine series, and may also be followed by a tolerance class. To calculate the major diameter of "aught" size screws count the number of extra zeroes and multiply this number by 0.
For example, the major diameter of a screw thread is 0. The number series of machine screws has been extended downward to include 0. This defines a series of metric screws named after their major diameters in millimetres, from 0.
Preferred sizes are 0. The thread form is slightly modified to increase the minor diameter, and thus the strength of screws and taps. The number series of machine screws once included more odd numbers and went up to 16 or more. Standardization efforts in the late 19th and the early part of the 20th century reduced the range of sizes considerably.
Now, it is less common to see machine screws larger than 14, or odd number sizes other than 1, 3 and 5. Even though 14 and 16 screws are still available, they are not as common as sizes 0 through Sometimes "special" diameter and pitch combinations UNS are used, for example a 0. UNS threads are rarely used for bolts, but rather on nuts, tapped holes, and threaded ODs. Because of this UNS taps are readily available. A screw thread gauging system comprises a list of screw thread characteristics that must be inspected to establish the dimensional acceptability of the screw threads on a threaded product and the gauge s which shall be used when inspecting those characteristics.
This Standard provides essential specifications and dimensions for the gauges used on Unified inch screw threads UN [unified] and UNR [external threads only] thread form, and covers the specifications and dimensions for the thread gauges and measuring equipment listed in Tables 1 and 2.
The basic purpose and use of each gauge are also described. It establishes the criteria for screw thread acceptance when a gauging system is used. These standards provide essential specifications and dimensions for the gauges used on Unified inch screw threads UN, UNR, UNJ thread form on externally and internally threaded products. It also covers the specifications and dimensions for the thread gauges and measuring equipment. It also establishes the criteria for screw thread acceptance when a gauging system is used.
A classification system exists for ease of manufacture and interchangeability of fabricated threaded items.Starts: Dimensions are in inches. Glossary Thread calculator: All calculated results are based on; Basic outside diameter, number of threads per inch, series designation and class tolerances. Making a thread that follow these specifications will ensure that it will work with threaded holes or shafts made by other manufacturers that follow these common specs. Outside diameter: This is the biggest diameter of the helical portion of a thread.
The biggest external diameter of a Screw or the biggest internal diameter of a threaded hole. NOTE: The size of the hexagon of a bolt or nut has no relevance when defining a thread size. TPI: Threads per inch The number of thread, or "V"s along a one inch length which in turns, defines the size of the "V" shape of the helical portion of a thread. NOTE: If the length of the threaded portion of a screw or threaded hole is shorter or longer than one inch, the size of the "V" shape is still defined by the number of thread that would fit along a one inch length.
It's Not Rocket Science
It also plays a role in determining the length of engagement. UN: standard series thread. UNC: coarse thread series. UNF: fine thread series. UNEF: extra-fine thread series. UNS: special thread series. UNR: standard series thread with rounded root. The class tolerance determines the size of the gap between the pitch diameters of the internal and external thread. Most commonly used are the classes 2A and 2B. Most screws have only 1 but a thread with multiple starts advance a greater distance for each turn.
Definition: This is the standard way of defining a screw thread. Can be a fractions, screw number 0 - 12, or a decimal number. Can be a decimal number such as 4.